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GOVERNMENT

Armenian Government Structure

The President
The president of the Republic of Armenia is the head of the state. The president observes the maintenance of Constitution, ensures the regular functioning of the legislative, executive and judicial powers. The president of the Republic is the guarantor of the independence, territorial integrity and security of the Republic of Armenia. The president of the Republic is elected by the citizens of the Republic of Armenia for a five year term


Legislative Power
The single-chambered national Assembly is the supreme legislative authority of the Republic of Armenia. National Assembly consists of 131 members of parliament, 75 are elected through majoritarian and 56 are elected through the proportional system. In 2007 the proportion has changed - 41 deputes were elected through majoritarian electoral system, 90 through proportional system. The National Assembly is elected through the instrumentality of national election of five year term. The last parliamentary elections hold in May, 2007.


Executive Power
 
Executive power in the Republic of Armenia is vested in the Government of the Republic of Armenia. The Government is composed of the Prime Minister and the Ministers. The president on the basis of consultation with the Ministers factions in the national meeting appoints the Prime Minister, obtaining the confidence of majority of deputies. The President of the Republic upon the recommendation of the prime minister appoints the number of member of government and relieve them of their post.


Judicial Power

In the Republic of Armenia justice is carried out in accordance with the Constitution and the Laws. In the Republic of Armenia the courts of general competence are: courts of first instance, review courts and the court of Appeals as well as specialized courts in cases prescribed by the law. The highest court instance in the Republic of Armenia, except for matters of constitutional justice, is the Court of Appeal, which mission is to provide uniformity in the implementation of the law. The powers of the Court of Appeal shall be defined by the Constitution and the law. The independence of courts shall be guaranteed by the Constitution and laws.

The Constitution and the law shall define the procedure for the formation and activities of the Council of Justice. Procurator’s office in the Republic of Armenia is the unity system which is chaired by the General Procurator. Procurator’s office is operated within the limits of authority which is allowed by Constitution on the basis of the law.

In the Republic of Armenia justice is carried out in accordance with the Constitution and the Laws. In the Republic of Armenia the courts of general competence are: courts of first instance, review courts and the court of Appeals as well as specialized courts in cases prescribed by the law. The highest court instance in the Republic of Armenia, except for matters of constitutional justice, is the Court of Appeal, which mission is to provide uniformity in the implementation of the law. The powers of the Court of Appeal shall be defined by the Constitution and the law. The independence of courts shall be guaranteed by the Constitution and laws.

The Constitution and the law shall define the procedure for the formation and activities of the Council of Justice. Procurator’s office in the Republic of Armenia is the unity system which is chaired by the General Procurator. Procurator’s office is operated within the limits of authority which is allowed by Constitution on the basis of the law.

Politics of Armenia takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is the head of government, and of a platform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. President is elected by popular vote for a five-year term.

The legislative branch of the Armenian democracy is the National Assembly (Azgayin Zhoghov). It is a unicameral body of 131 members, elected for four-year terms: 56 members in single-seat constituencies and 75 by proportional representation. Parliamentarians submit laws for adoption by the National Assembly, while the President maintains veto power.

The Republic of Armenia declared its sovereignty on August 23, 1990, and became an independent state a year later, on September 23, 1991. In October 1991, Levon Ter-Petrosian, who had been elected democratically as chairman of the Armenian Supreme Soviet under the Soviet system in 1990, was chosen president. Following Ter-Petrosian's resignation in 1998, PM Robert Kocharian assumed the role as president and was elected to the same role later that year. Following the assassination in Parliament of Prime Minister Vazgen Sargsyan and parliament Speaker Karen Demirchyan and six other officials, on October 27, 1999, a period of political instability ensued during which an opposition headed by elements of the former Armenian National Movement government attempted unsuccessfully to force Kocharian to resign. Kocharian was successful in riding out the unrest. In 2003 he was re-elected for a second 5-year term.

Serzh Sargsyan was elected as a president of Armenia in February 2008 presidential election.

Armenia has established diplomatic relations with 125 countries. Armenia is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States and at the same time enjoys good relations with the United States and the European Union.

National Flag – a tricolor with horizontal lines of red, navy and orange evenly distributed from top to bottom. Red symbolizes Armenian Highlands, Armenians’ incessant struggle for survival, Christian faith, liberty and independence. Navy symbolizes the aspiration of the Armenian nation to live under the peaceful sky. Orange symbolizes the talent for creative work and diligence of the Armenian people.

National Emblem – Mount Ararat together with Noah’s Arc and the emblem of four kingdoms of historical Armenia are illustrated in the center - on the shield: the Bagratunies are on the top left, the Arshakunies are on the top right, the Artashesians are on the bottom left, the Rubinyans are on the bottom right. The shield is supported by an eagle (on the left) and by a lion (on the right), and there is a sword, a branch, a sheaf of ears, a chain and a ribbon illustrated under the shield. The emblem colors symbolize the colors of the Armenian flag.

National anthem is «Mer Hayrenik» («Our Fatherland»). Adopted on July 1, 1991, it is based on the anthem of the Democratic Republic of Armenia (1918-1922), but with different lyrics. The lyrics were written as a poem by poet Mikael Nalbandian (1829-1866) and later set to music by composer Barsegh Kanachian (1885-1967).


Chronology of Armenian Government

IV-III thousand years BC. - origin of fore Armenian tribal unions on the territory of the Armenian Plateau.

859 BC - Mentioning of Arame - the first king of Urartu in the Assyrian cuneiform inscriptions
782 BC - Foundation of Erebuni fortress
550 BC. - Mentioning of Armenian kingdom in Xenophon’s chronicles
520 BC - Mentioning of Arminya country and Armina people in Persian king Dareh’s Behistun stone

1st c. AD. - Completion of ethnic formalization of Armenian nation and formation of Armenian language
45-56 - The reign of the king Tigran 2nd. The strengthening of the Armenian statehood
301 - The adoption of Christianity as state religion
387 - The division of Armenia between Rome and Persia
405 - The creation of Armenian alphabet by scholars and monk Mesrop Mashtots
451, 26 May - Avarair battle. Vardan Mamikonian’s battle against Persian on the river Tghmut
859 - Formation of Armenian principality from the vassalage of arabic Chalipt
885 - The start of Bagratuni Dynasty and the reinstatement of the Armenian statehood
1124 - The independence of Ani from Seljuk turks
1375 - Fall of the kingdom of Cilicia from invasion of Egyptian Mamluks
1441 - The re-establishment of the Catholicosate in Holy Etchmiadzin

XVI - Armenian appel to Eropean nation for the request of defending from turks and Persians
XVII - Armenian Embassy in Russia 1722 - Withdrawal of Russian Army in the Caspian Sea. Occupation of Baku, Derbent
1724 - The creation of the independent Armenia Duchy in Kapan by David Bek
1812- Victory of Russian army against Persians on the Araks River
1813 - The signing of Golestan treaty between Russia and Iran
1826 - Second war with Persians. The adjacent of Russia with Eastern Armenia under the Turkmanchay treaty
1828 - The creation of the Armenian region within the Russian Empire 


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